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Rural Livelihood Improvement: An Assessment of Households’ Strategies and Activities in Adamawa State, Nigeria
AbstractThe livelihood of rural residents is paramount in the development of the Nigerian state. The broad objective of this study was to assess rural livelihoods in Adamawa State, Nigeria. In specific terms, the study described rural residents’ socio-economic characteristics, identified their livelihood strategies and activities, examined factors affecting the undertaking of diverse livelihood activities, and also identified livelihood constraints in the study area. A sample of 480 respondents was selected from nine Local Government Areas of the State for the study. A semi-structured questionnaire was used in collecting data from 16 sampled villages. Descriptive statistics and Ordinary Least Square (OLS) multiple regression analysis were used in the data analysis. Findings of the study revealed that 86.7% of the respondents were male with a mean age of 46 years, and are mostly (74%) educated. Married persons constituted the majority (91.7%) having an average household size of the respondents was 7 persons. The main livelihood strategies in the area were; diversification, intensification, and migration. The respondents’ most common livelihood activities were agriculture-related. The study also revealed that the livelihood activities in the area are being significantly affected by age (X1), gender(X2), marital status (X3), household size (X4), educational level (X5), farm size (X6), remittance (X7), social group membership (X8), and access to credit (X9). The respondents’ foremost livelihood constraints identified in the study were; lack of basic social amenities (95.6%), poor political representation (92.9%), insecurity challenges (74.4%), lack of capital/financial exclusion (61.7%), and adverse climatic conditions (51.7%). Key among the recommendations of the study was the need for substantial investments in the provision of physical infrastructure in rural areas and also the provision of adequate security of lives and properties in conflict-affected areas.
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